Bakterijos Enzimai Mityba

Without ENZYMES LIFE would not EXIST

Enzymes are created by the microbial cultures found within fermented foods.

I part

In the science of nutrition, protein, carbohydrates, fats, fibers, vitamins, and minerals are the active ingredients used to maintain health. All that is required for their use is adequate DIGESTION.

Our organs, tissues, and cells are all run by metabolic enzymes. Minerals, vitamins and hormones need enzymes to be present in order to do their work properly. Enzymes are the labor force of the body.

Each of us, as with all living organisms, could be regarded as an orderly, integrated succesion of enzyme reactions.

What are enzymes?

A light bulb can only light up when you put an electric current through it. It is animated by electricity. The current is the life force of the bulb. Without electricity we would have no light, just a light bulb, a physical object without light. So, we can say that the light bulb actually has a dual nature: a physical structure, and a non-physical electrical force that expresses and manifests through the bulb. The same situation exists when trying to describe what an enzyme is within our body structure.

A protein molecule is actually only the carrier of enzyme activity.

A protein molecule is a carrier like the light bulb is the carrier for an electric current.

What do enzymes do in the body?

Enzymes are involved in every process of the body. Life could not exist without them. Enzymes digest all of our food and make it small enough to pass through the minute pores of the intestines into the blood. Enzymes in the blood take prepared, digested food and build it into muscles, nerves, blood and glands. They assist in storing sugar in the liver and muscles, and turn fat into fatty tissue. Enzymes aid in the formation of urea which is to be eliminated as urine and also in the elimination of carbon dioxide in the lungs. There is an enzyme that builds phosphorus into the bone and nerve tissue, and another to help attach iron to red blood cells. Male sperm carries enzymes that dissolve the tiny crevice in the female egg membrane, so it may gain entrance into it. An enzyme called streptokinase is used in medicine to dissolve blood clots. Enzymes in our immunity system attack waste materials and poisons in the blood and tissues. These few examples exemplify the importance of enzymes to our everyday body functions.

The number of enzymes in the body is overwhelming, and yet each one has a specific function. A protein digestive enzyme willl not digest a fat, a fat digestive enzyme will not digest a starch. This is frequently called enzyme specificity.

Enzymes act upon substance and change them into another substance, either chemical, or a type of by-product, but remain unchanged themselves. Any substance that an enzyme acts upon is called a substrate. The substrate is then changed from its original identity by the enzyme to another substance with a different identity.

How do enzymes get their names

We now know that the names of all enzymes end in „-ase,“ and in most cases, the name of the enzyme will also reveal its function; thus, protease is an enzyme that catalyzes (act upon) proteins.

There are 4 categories of food enzymes:

  1. Lipase – which serves to break down fat.
  2. Protease (proteolytic enzymes) – works to break down protein.
  3. Cellulase – assists in breaking down cellulose.
  4. Amylase – which breaks down starch.

As we become enzyme defficient, the faster we age.

Where do we get our enzymes?

There are three major classes of enzymes: metabolic enzymes (enzymes which work in blood, tissues, and organs), food enzymes from raw food, and digestive enzymes.

Enzymes are involved in every metabolic process. Our immunity system, blood-stream, liver, kidneys, spleen, pancreas, as well as our ability to see, think and breathe depend upon enzymes. The lack of them in any of these areas can prove to be detrimental in degrees of depletion. Realizing that the lack of enzymes can be a predisposing cause of disease substantiates their importance.

The important thing to keep in mind is that all cellular activity is initiated by enzymes. Enzymes break down toxic substances so that the body can eliminate them without damaging eliminative organs.

There are two ways to preserve and replenish our enzyme level: by eating raw food and by taking enzyme supplements.

The difference between live (raw) and dead food is enzymatic activity. If you had two seeds and boiled one, which one would grow when placed in soil? There is no question that the unboiled seed would sprout because it has its enzymes intact. All foods provided by nature have an abundance of enzymes when in their raw state.

One characteristic of enzymes is their inability to whithstand hot temperatures such as those used in cooking. Consequently, the enzymes are completely destroyed in all foods that are canned, pasteurized, baked, roasted, stewed or fried. At 118degrees F (47.7 C) all enzymes are destroyed. Baking bread kills enzymes. Most butters have no enzymes because they are pasteurized. Canned juices may have vitamins and minerals, but the heating process has killed the enzymes. The roasted breakfast cereals that you feed your children, are devoid of enzymes.

Enzymes are more or less completely destroyed when heated in water in the temperature range between 48 degrees to 65 C. Long heating at 48 degrees C or short heating at 65 C, kills enzymes. Heating at 60 degrees to 80 for half an hour completely kills any enzymes.

Enzymes are always a part of animal and plant life. They are a component of living matter. Animals in the wild consume large amounts of enzymes as a result of their primary raw food diets. This aids in the digestive process, taking the stress off organs such as pancreas, liver, spleen which would otherwise have to produce large amounts of enzymes.

White blood cells have a greater variety of enzymes than does the pancreas.

Enzymes are found in every tissue of the body.

How food enzymes aid digestion

A human being is not maintained by his food intake, but rather, by what is digested.

Enzymes may be divided into two groups: exogenous (found in raw food), and endogenous enzymes (produced within our bodies). The more one gets of the exogenous enzymes, the less will have to be borrowed from other metabolic processes and supplied by the pancreas. The enzymes contained in raw food actually aid in the digestion of that same food when it is chewed.

All known enzymes have been classified into six fundamental groups based on the types of reactions they catalyze. These groups are hydrolases, lysases, oxidoreductases, transferases, isomerases, and ligases.

Hydrolases digest food. Hydrolytic enzyme reactions are ones in which chemical bonds are broken with the addition of water molecule.

Lysases catalyze the decomposition of a molecule into two fragments.

Oxidoreductases are involved with transfer of electrons from one molecule to another. No molecule can be oxidized without the simultaneous reduction of another one.

Transferases catalyze the transfer of a chemical group from one molecule to another.

Isomerases change the arrangement of molecules within a substrate. They convert a molecule into the mirror-image of the orgiginal.

Ligases (synthetases) catalyze the formation of a chemical bond between two molecules that enable energy-rich phosphate compounds to be broken down. An excellent example is the conversion of glucose into energy inside the cells of the body.

Researchers show that cooked food with the fiber broken down passes through the digestive system more slowly than raw foods.

It is important to realize that the enzymes in raw food actually digest 5 to 75 percent of the food itself without the help of the enzymes secreted by the body. This is called energy conservation since the body does not have to supply 100% of the enzymes to digest the food.

Dr. Matveev demonstrated that oxidase and catalase, which are enzymes supplied from carrot juice, were inactivated in the stomach because of the acidity, and then reactivated again in the alkalinity of the small intestines.

Since the enzymes in raw food actually help digest the food they are contained in, and can be absorbed into the blood and used in other metabolic processes, we can assume that taking enzymes or eating a large percentage of raw food, will help take the stress off not only the pancreas, but the entire body.

Enzymes and longevity

It has been shown that young adults have a high value of enzyme reserve in their tissues. In older persons, the potential enzymes tissue reserve is much lower and essentially depleted. When a young person eats cooked food, there is a greater outpouring of enzymes from the organs and body fluids than in adults. This is becaus years of eating a cooked food diet has depleted the adult, whereas the young adult‘s tissue reserve is still at maximum.

A further experiment in relation to saliva and its amylase content was performed at the Michael Reese Hospital in Chicago. In experiments were used young adults from the ages of 21 to 31 and another group ranging from age 69 to 100. It was shown that the younger group had 30 times more amylase in their saliva than the elderly group. This is why younger persons can tolerate a diet of white bread, starches, and predominately cooked food.

During chronic diseases, there is usually a low body reserve on enzymes. In Japanese patients who had tuberculosis, 82% of them had lower enzyme contents than normal individuals. As the disease worsened, the enzymes levels decreased.

It is undisputable fact that during chronic disease we find a lower enzyme content in blood, urine, feces and tissues. In acute diseases, and sometimes at the beginning of chronic diseases, the enzymes content is often found to be high. This shows that the body has a reserve, and the tissues are not yet depleted, consequently, there is larger outpouring of enzymes in the battle against disease. As the disease progresses, the body‘s enzyme content is lowered.

Any time the metabolism is falsely stimulated by coffee, a high protein diet, or other stimulants, the metabolism increases, enzymes are used up, a false energy output is experienced, and the individual feels a sense of well being.

Enzymes offer an important means of calculating the vital energy of an organism.

Enzymes and their relationship to disease

Enzymes are a part of every metabolic process in the body – from the working of our glands to the proper functioning of our immune system. The speed of the metabolism is determined by the activity of enzymes.

It is important to note that enzyme activity is increased as temperatures increase and is present in most acute disease conditions, fevers, and during exercise. In other words, enzymes perform more work during fevers of 40 degrees C than at normal body temperatures.

There is a connection between the strength of our immune system and our enzymes level. The greater the amount of enzymes reserves, the stronger our immune system, the healthier and stronger we will be.

Enzymes are produced by all the tissues and cells of the body. And, in fact, it has been shown that the enzymes found in the white blood cells act very much like the enzymes found in the pancreas, especially the proteolytic enzymes. Dr. Willstarter found it remarkable how closely the enzymes systems of white blood cells and the pancreatic gland agree with one another. Since the same enzymes are found in the white blood cells as are found in the pancreas, and since white blood cells transport these enzymes throughout the body, it seems that the pancreas and other enzymes-secreting glands receive a great portion of theses enzymes via the leukocytes. After eating a cooked food meal, when digestive enzymes desperately needed, the white blood cells count increases, seemingly to aid in the digestive process.

The body must supply a large amount of digestive enzymes that were once present in the food, were destroyed by the heating process. Dr. Koutchakoff, in his book demonstrating the relation of cooking and its effects on our systems, showed that there was an increase in white blood cells after eating a cooked food meal. This increase in leukocytes is needed to transport digestive enzymes to the digestive tract. He also showed that after a raw food meal, there was no substantial increase in leukocytes, showing that the body has to work much harder to produce and transport enzymes for digestion after a cooked food meal. It is important to remember that enzymes in raw food aid in the digestive process and this takes the stress off having to borrow them from the body‘s enzyme reserve, particularly from the white blood cell count (our immune system).

Leukocytosis is the name that medical pathology gives to an excessive augment of white blood corpuscles in the blood. Donders discovered the phenomenon in 1846 and Virchow classified “digestive leukocytosis” as normal since everyone seemed to suffer from it. This was upset by Dr. Paul Koutchakoff, M. D., who showed that the cooking of food was the cause of leukocytosis. Koutchakoff found that he could divide his findings on leukocytosis in four distinct groups according to reaction of the blood:

  1. Raw food produced no augment in white blood cells of the blood;
  2. Common cooked food caused leukocytosis;
  3. Pressure cooked food caused greater leukocytosis than non-pressure cooked food;
  4. Manufactured foods such as wine, vinegar, white sugar, ham, etc. are the most offensive.

Koutchakoff was no vegetarian yet his findings show that flesh would have to be eaten raw to avoid leukocytosis. But prepared meat (cooked, smoked, salted, etc.) brought on the most violent reaction equivalent to the leukocytosis count manifest in poisoning.

The leukocytes are rich in enzymes and are being transported to the stomach area to aid in the digestive process.

Endocrine system and enzymes

The endocrine system and the nervous system cooperate in regulating the appetite. The glands know when the body has had enough food and will shut off the food craving. Eating mostly raw food takes the stress off the endocrine system. Refined sugar and processed foods disrupt the endocrine balance because of their caloric content. If the glands know the organism has had enough calories, but the nutrients and enzymes that usually accompany food aren’t present because of being over cooked, the glands, not finding these nutrients, overstimulate the digestive organs, demanding more food than is needed to maintain strength and vitality. This results in over secretion of hormones, overeating, obesity, and finally exhaustion of the hormone-producing glands, not to mention the enzyme reserve it depletes trying carry on the increased metabolic activity.

Obesity and the circulatory diseases

In observing enzyme therapy in different countries, it has been found that by administering enzymes during certain diseases positive results have been obtained.

Why is there a deficiency of lipase in fatty tissues and in obese individuals? It is because when food is cooked, the lipase, which aids in fat digestion, and the burning of fat for energy and the storage and distribution of fat, is absent.

If there is an overabundance of cooked calories, they are stored in the body tissue as fat. This fat accumulates in the liver, kidneys, arteries, and capillaries.

A heat-treated, refined food diet causes drastic changes in the size and the appearance of the pituitary gland. This relationship between enzymes and our glands was shown when the surgical removal of the glands in animals led to changes in the enzyme levels of the blood. Enzymes affect hormone-producing glands and hormones influence enzyme levels.

The glandular secretions of the pancreas and pituitary become exhausted from over-stimulation resulting from a cooked food diet. The body becomes sluggish, thyroid function also becomes exhausted, and weight is gained.Raw calories are relatively non-stimulating to glands and stabilize body weight.

Dr. G. E. Burch showed that young over-fed animals develop more fat cells than underfed ones. Infants that over-fed can develop three times as many fat cells as is normal. When a normal person gains weight, he or she may get what is called pleasingly plump, but when a person who has been overfed as an infant and has accumulated much more fat cells and these cells are filled to an excess, obesity results. Both types of people can eat the same amount of food, but the one who has more fat cells and, consequently, more room to store fat, puts on weight much easier.

If one wants to reduce and keep his weight down, eating fewer meals per day will be beneficial. Frequent eating and snacking can decrease the enzyme level of the body and cause weight gain.

It is an important fact to remember that aging corresponds to diminishing enzyme levels.

Fats impair the function of blood cells in the immune system by slowing down their circulation.High levels of fat in the blood also block the action of insulin which aids in the tissue absorption of sugar. This allows to sugar to rise in the blood which can be an attributing factor to diabetes.

In 1926, Dr. William A. Thomas studied Eskimos who lived exclusively on raw meat and found no signs of kidney or vascular (blood vessel) diseases. In the adult Eskimos, aging from forty to sixty, the average blood pressure reading was 129/76. It should be remembered that these are primitive Eskimos. The more civilized Eskimos who settled in the Hudson Bay area, close to trading posts, used cooked food and white flour products. They gave up their primitive diet, and consequently their good health. You can now find arteriosclerosis and elevated blood pressure among these people. The only factor that was found to be different among the primitive and civilizes Eskimos, was their diet.

Raw food diet and pre-digestion

North Western University has shown that supplemental enzymes pass through the stomach uninjured.

If the food is over-cooked and the enzymes destroyed, the only enzymes that get mixed with the food are the ones contained in saliva. Some starch digestion may take place in the stomach from the saliva amylase. The protein is acted upon by the stomach pepsin, but mostly in the lower part of the stomach. In both instances, no help from outside enzymes is being demonstrated. The fat remains practically untouched only to wait until it moves into the small intestine for the pancreatic secretions of lipase. The food remains in the food-enzyme stomach for its allotted time and practically no pre-digestion takes place, except for the starch.

It has been estimated that 80% of diseases are caused by improperly digested foods and their by-products being absorbed into the body.

To purchase organic food and then to waste precious hours in destroying most of the nutrients is poor economy and unsound ecology. Francis Pottenger, M. D., carried out a 10-year experiment using 900 cats which were placed on controlled diets. The cats on raw food produced healthy kittens from generation to generation. Those on cooked food developed our modern ailments: heart, kidney and thyroid disease, pneumonia, paralysis, loss of teeth, difficulty in labor, diminished or perverted sexual interest, diarrhea, irritability. Liver impairment on cooked protein was progressive, the bile in the stool becoming so toxic that even weeds refused to grow in soil fertilized by the cat’s excrement. The first generation of kittens were sick and abnormal; the second generation were often born dead or diseased; by the third generation, the mother was sterile.

Zoologists know that captured animals fed a human diet develop human diseases such as gastritis, duodenitis, colitis, liver diseases, anemia, thyroid diseases, arthritis and circulatory problems.

Body, mind and enzymes

A lack of enzymes, oxygen and sugar supplies to the cells of our body can cause hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia is a disorder resulting from too low blood sugar, which is the fuel for our cells.

Since hypoglycemia is a malfunction of our fuel supply, every organ is then affected. Here’s how: as the sugar level drops, the metabolism of every organ drops, resulting in fatigue and psychosomatic problems. The brain is nourished exclusively by glucose and oxygen. A drop in one’s blood sugar can cause mental fatigue and depression. The endocrine glands, especially the pituitary, adrenals, thyroid and pancreas, control the sugar level. The pancreas secretes the insulin which causes a decrease in blood sugar. Insulin facilitates the movement of glucose (blood sugar) to leave the blood and enter the cells. Insulin also stimulates liver and muscle cells to convert glucose into glycogen, which is a carbohydrate and the chief storage compound of sugar in the body. The adrenal glands secrete a hormone called epinephrine that when stimulated causes the stored sugar (glycogen) to break down into glucose which then enters the blood to raise the blood sugar. The thyroid gland secrets hormones that control the rate at which the body uses oxygen. All of these glands are controlled by the pituitary gland, which in turn, is controlled by an area of the brain called hypothalamus. The hypothalamus receives information from all the parts of the body via the nervous system. This includes (whether he is hungry or not) a person’s emotional state, body temperature, blood nutrient concentration, among other things.

It has been shown that the pituitary and other organs can enlarge, become exhausted, and then be susceptible to disease when a deficiency of enzymes is present. When there is a lack of blood amylase, blood sugar levels can be higher than normal. With the addition of blood amylase, blood sugar levels have been lowered.

Reports have shown that oral or intravenous injection of amylase causes a lowering of blood sugar levels in diabetics. After administering amylase to a majority of these patients, 50% of the diabetics who were users of insulin could control their blood sugar levels without the use of insulin. Amylase seems to help the storage and utilization of sugar in the blood.

Cooked food, where most of the amylase and other enzymes are destroyed, has a tremendous effect on the blood sugar levels.

The endocrine glands need trace minerals and vitamins to function properly.

These deficiencies cause many problems. The glands of the body are controlled by stimuli from the brain to secrete their hormones. When the blood sugar level drops below normal, the pancreas and adrenal glands are called upon to secrete their hormones. When there is a lack of nutrients in the blood which support the endocrine glands, the hypothalamus stimulate the appetite and causes a craving for food. The more that cooked food is eaten the more there will be hormone stimulation, resulting in overeating.

Finally, the endocrine glands, deficient in their secretions from trying to keep the body metabolism normal, become exhausted.

Enzymes have as much to do with our mental and physical health as any other considered element of nutrition.

Detoxification and enzymes

Two major changes take place in predigested foods:

  1. The enzyme content sometimes increases 10-fold and
  2. In the pre-digestion process the food is broken down into simpler components. Proteins are broken down into amino acids, starches into simpler sugars, and fats into fatty acids. This relieves the body of breaking down the more concentrated food elements and it also benefits from the increase in enzymes. This is conserving energy and enzymes for other metabolic functions. In other words, more energy and enzymes can be used in the healing process.

Pepsin is the enzyme that is secreted in the stomach that begins digestion of protein foods. It can only function in an acid digestive juices. When it enters the small intestine, its action is blocked by the neutrality of pancreatic alkaline secretions. At this point, trypsin, a pancreatic enzyme, is secreted in the small intestine which also digests protein. It more or less takes over where pepsin leaves off. So, the body digests protein in the stomach in an acid environment then continues in the small intestine in an alkaline environment.

The starch amylase is not the only enzyme that can function throughout the digestive tract. Plant protease and lipase can function at a 3 to 8.5 pH, so they can actively continue digestion in both the stomach and intestine.

Children and enzymes

Many diseases in their early stages of development have two major causes. The first is the ingestion of enzyme-deficient foods over period of time, coupled with eating foods that lack the vitamins and minerals needed daily. Manufacturing procedures, mineral-depleted soils, and cooked, enzymeless foods create this undernutrition. The second cause is carcinogens, cholesterol, x-rays, drugs, caffeine, and other life-impinging agents.

Complete breast-feeding of infants is of very great importance. Mother’s milk has all the nutrients needed for the growth of the child and a large amount of live enzymes which the baby thrives on. Milk formulas lack enzymes and other artificial formulas can be toxic to the child, causing infections, mucus conditions, fevers, diarrhea, colic and allergies. At the Infant Welfare Centre of Chicago, over a period of years, the health and development of 20,061 infants were closely monitored for the first nine months of the infant’s life. Of these, 48,5% were wholly breastfed, 43% partially breastfed, and 8,5% wholly artificially fed.

The mortality rate among artificially fed infants was fifty-six times greater than among the breast-fed. Four of the 9,749 breast-fed infants died of respiratory infections, compared to eighty-two of the 1,707 artificially-fed infants.

There are two major factors involved when considering children‘s health. The first, of course, is the mother‘s health. Dr. Bieler, M. D., states „that unless the mother is detoxified before conceiving, the baby comes into the world… full of toxins from the mother‘s blood and an intestine full of meconium (black bile). The baby is, in fact, so toxic that even with the best care it usually takes 3 years to eliminate his or her inherited birth poisons“. The second point to be considered here is that once a child has been brought into this world with a weak constitution, and a bloodstream laden with poison, he or she is then expected to exist on a diet of concentrated, enzymeless foods.

If the lack of enzymes can cause disease, then adding enzymes to the diet, either by supplementation or by eating proper food, would help to prevent disease. Adding enzymes to one‘s diet is the smart thing to do when we consider that enzymes are used up daily. Children that maintain high enzyme levels maintain high energy levels.

Anytime the temperature of the body is raised, enzymes are used up – both during healthy exercise as well as during fever. More calories are being burnt during exercise and this natural oxidation process is initiated by enzymes.

Over-feeding a child, especially with cooked, devitalized food, causes the digestive organs to secrete large amounts of enzymes daily, which over a period of time can exhaust the enzyme-producing organs and deplete the immunity of the whole body. This puts a strain on every tissue throughout the body.

The proper thing to do is to feed your child and yourself only when you are hungry.

Consider occasional, short fasts. During fasting the enzymes go to work cleaning up undigested materials in the blood and puryfying the whole body. Then resume a good healthy diet cutting out the junk food and increase the fresh fruit and vegetables.

Sports-enzymes-and nutrition

An athlete‘s main concern should be the type of food he eats in order to maintain a healthy body and to replace the nutrients which are lost during exercise or competition.

When you exercise, most of these substances are used up rapidly by the body and need replacement.

A major concern of an athlete is that his or her system absorb and properly utilize the food ingested. Utilizing is the key word here because the food ingested usually lacks the proper enzymes.

Enzymes are present in the blood, muscles, tissue and organs and are involved in every metabolic function. Nothing can happen without enzymes.

The athlete usually eats mostly cooked food so it is like burning the candle at both ends. Enzymes are being used up rapidly and little is brought in to replenish the supply.

The science of pharmacology depends on finding isolated chemical compounds (the active ingredient). In the science of nutrition, protein, carbohydrates, fats, fibers, vitamins, and minerals are the active ingredients used to maintain health. All that is required for their use is adequate digestion.

Supplement companies spend large amounts of money developing new technologies to move isolated chemical compounds (called food supplements) across the gut wall and into the blood without relying on the process of digestion.

It is a scientific certainty that the part does not have the same chemistry, effectiveness, or reactivity as the whole. Taking one or two chemical entities from a plant and discarding the remainder as having no therapeutic value denies the basic tenets of chemistry.

Any time that you take a chemical out of a food, and concentrate it into a very large dose and feed it to humans, you create deficiencies of the thing that you took out (synergystic elements that are in the food that the body needs to metabolize the active ingredient). When you put this into the body, there must be the other synergistic ingredients it was created within the food in order for the body to be able to utilize it. For example refined sugar use creates deficiencies of vitamin B and potassium, among other things. If these ingredients are not readily available in the body, the body must either tear down its own tissues to provide them, or the nutrient goes right through the body unused. Unfortunately, the body must treat it as a foreign substance and use precious energy to detoxify and otherwise process the excess. If the excess is in sufficient quantity and the body cannot prevent its accumulation, the substance will produce side effects.

The Food and Drug Administration and organized medicine often issues warning about herbs and how dangerous they can be for public consumption. We need some explanation here. Pharmacology is concerned only with the effect of active ingredient. Because these active ingredients are no longer combined with protein, carbohydrates, lipids, synergistic enzymes, and coenzymes in the food etc., they are by definition no longer food and are quite capable of producing side effects so often associated with prescription drug use.

Finding a chemical in a plant and testing a concentrated dose of that chemical, and then declaring that the plant is toxic without evaluating what the other chemical entities present in the plant may do to change, minimize, enhance, or even block altogether the action of the chemical, is not nutritional science.

II part

The root word “enzyme” comes from the Greek word “enzyme” which means “to ferment” or “to cause a change.”

The body will always borrow enzymes from different organs for digestive support if one is not eating living foods or taking enzymes supplements.

The nutritional value of food can no longer be simply calculated by calories, proteins, fats and carbohydrates because none of these components can be properly assimilated without their active enzymes.

The minerals are essential to enzyme systems either because they are part of the enzyme itself, or they act as co-factors, which enable the enzymes work properly.

You are what you eat, what you digest and what you absorb.

Dr. William Newsome of Canada’s Department of Health and Welfare Food Research Division, Bureau of Chemical Safety, found, for example, that cooked tomatoes contain ten to ninety times more ETU (fetus-deforming and cancer causing compound) than raw tomatoes from the same garden. His studies showed that ETU is the heat caused end product of widely used EBDC fungicides. He states, “Generally the amount of ETU in cooked vegetables was about 50 times more than in uncooked vegetables.”

In animal experiments a classical study by Dr. F. M. Pottinger was conducted for ten years involving nine-hundred cats who were fed cooked and raw food diets. Results were observed for four generations. The cats fed cooked food developed the spectrum of degenerative diseases found in our society. In each succeeding generation, the disease became more chronic. By the third generation, reproduction became impossible. However, cats fed raw food continued to produce from one generation to the next healthy litters of youthful, flexible and active offsprings.

A human is nourished and maintained not by what he eats, but by what is digested. All food is, at least potentially, a poison, until converted into simple structures by enzymes. There are two types of life building chemistries. One is found in raw food and called exogenous; the other is produced within your own body and is referred to as endogenous enzymes.

There are more than 80.000 enzyme systems, each performing a specialized function from digestion of food to color of hair, to movement of the tongue or retina as you are speaking or reading this text.

Intestinal absorbability of enzymes

Because enzymes do not pass through the intestinal membrane in vitro (laboratory culture), the assumption has become general that enzymes cannot be absorbed from the intestinal canal during life. In the experiments on the passage of various sugars the intestinal wall in vivo (in living organism) and in vitro, the physiologist Westenbrink achieved opposite results and concluded that gut permeability in vitro has little resemblance to absorption in vivo.

It is a remarkable fact that the young of most, if not all animals, including man, have weak digestive fluids; particularly do they have low content in saliva. The suckling animal or infant does not need to secret a great quantity of enzymes because milk, its first food, does not demand so many of them for its digestion as it has quite a complement of its own enzymes.

It can be safely accepted as a general principle that the amylase, protease, or lipase content of digestive fluids is determined essentially by the quantity of starch, protein, or fat present in ingested food.

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Efficacy of food enzymes in digestion

Heat treated foods do cause a greater outpouring of enzymes into the digestive canal than do raw foods is illustrated by the work of Buddle. Quantitative determinations of trypsin and peptidase were carried out on stools passed in hours by breast-fed and bottle-fed babies. The relative of trypsin of breast-fed babies was significantly, and the amount of peptidase, markedly lower that in bottle-fed babies. Pasteurized milk requires the participation of more digestive enzymes than raw milk, and, consequently, that a raw diet tends to be economical in its use and disposition of digestive enzymes, while a heat-treated diet causes more of them to be used up and excreted.

Pancreas hypertrophy and heat-treated diet

The raw food of herbivora supplies active enzymes which participate in digestion. Active salivary glands are not required and there is no need for a large pancreas. On the other hand, the diet of man is grossly deficient in food enzymes, his salivary glands are highly active, and the human pancreas is proportionally at least twice as large as that of herbivora.

These facts suggest clearly that the enzymes present in raw, uncooked food relieve the pancreas and salivary glands of the necessity of enlarging from excess work. The considerable hypertrophy of the pancreas and salivary glands, which has been found to occur in human races living upon large quantities of cooked carbohydrates, indicates the nature of the intrepid but deplorable compensatory measures the organism is forced to adopt, and is added proof of the profound influence and benefit of enzymes supplied naturally by raw foods.

Those races subsisting largely upon heat-treated carbohydrates appear to have the largest pancreatic and salivary glands.

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Enzyme content of body fluids in disease

The enzyme-producing power, or the enzyme reserve of the organism, is fixed within definite limits. The speed of metabolism is determined by the quantity of enzymes engaged. The greater the metabolic exchange within the tissues, the more enzymes are required to participate and, consequently, the greater will be the quantity of them wasted by excretion.

It is interesting to note that one of the main characteristics of all enzymes is their accelerated activity with rising temperature. In other words, enzymes are more active, and will perform more work, in the organism as well as in vitro, at a fever temperature of 40 degrees C than at the normal temperature. This illustrates the precision with which coordination operates within the organism. There is much evidence to indicate that the response of enzymes to elevation in temperature functions as the main mechanism of the body’s immune system.

Nutritional role of exogenous enzymes

Bacteria swallowed with food, water and air, contain enzymes.

A considerable part of feces has been stated by Kendall, Northwestern University, to be composed of the bodies of bacteria.

It cannot be denied that bacteria are efficient and prolific enzyme producers since highly active bacterial enzymes are being used regularly in industry.

Bacterial life in the intestine is prolific and may furnish considerable quantities of accessory enzymes to the organism may be surmised from the investigations of Kendall, Northwestern University Medical School, who concluded that about 50 percent of the total nitrogen of feces is contained in the bodies of dead bacteria.

It is well established that the optimum pH for enzymes varies with the temperature.

When a battery is “dead”, the energy value has vanished; similarly, when enzymes are destroyed by heat, the energy value disappears, leaving behind only its vehicle.

Lymphatic adsorption and distribution of enzymes

It is commonly stated that the pancreas manufactures several hundred mL of pancreatic fluid every day, but it would be more appropriate to say it merely “assembles” this juice. It does not manufacture the water content of the juice, but derives it from the blood stream.

The pancreas weighs 85 grams in an adult human; the salivary glands 75 grams. It seems absurd that a few ounces of tissue could supply from its own substance the enormous quantities of enzymes continually furnished to the intestine, one year after another. This same observation might apply with equal force to the secretions from all glands, including the endocrine glands.

Undoubtedly, the pancreatic cells have the power to manufacture enzymes in the same degree as other cells, but certainly not in the concentration found in pancreatic secretion.

The pancreas is a collecting, transforming, and modifying gland and that it does not manufacture any of the physical components of pancreatic juice from its own substance for any great length of time, but continually receives fresh supplies. There is no reason why this same conclusion should not apply to all secreting glands.

Leukocytes a great assortment of enzymes – perhaps greater than any other cells or tissues. Leukocytes contain a greater variety of enzymes than has been reported for the pancreas. As Willstater called to attention, it appears probable that white blood cells provide transportation for enzymes from place to place within the organism. Since leukocytes are well fortified with the weapons of metabolism, the manner in which they act in phagocytosis is easier to comprehend. Certainly, it seems more feasible to believe that the vital components of enzymes discharged by the pancreas into the duodenum are brought to pancreas from muscles and other tissues, as well as from foods and reabsorbed intestinal secretions, than it is to believe that 85 grams of pancreatic tissue can indefinitely manufacture these active enzymic fractions from its own substance.

While a toll of enzymes must be lost every day by excretion in the feces, urine, and sweat, the laws governing natural phenomena dictate that this tribute be exacted, not only from a few ounces of pancreatic, salivary, gastric, and intestinal secreting tissue, but also and perhaps mainly from the cells comprising a hundred or more pounds of muscular and glandular tissue making up the adult organism.

The pancreas and other enzyme-secreting glands receive a large portion of their enzymes from leukocytes.

It must be remembered in this connection that the optimum pH for maximum activity of enzymes varies within wide limits with the temperature, and that the optimum temperature for maximum activity varies with the pH. As a general rule, decrease in hydrogen ion concentration (higher pH) favors increased activity at higher temperatures (50 to 70 degrees C) and increase in hydrogen ion concentration (lower pH) favors increased activity at lower temperatures (30 to 40 degrees C).

The defensive power of leukocytes resides in their high and diversified enzyme content.

It must be not forgotten that both leukocytosis and increased enzyme activity occur in infectious and febrile diseases. There is a physiological leukocytosis after meals and in pregnancy, and it was pointed out that this is accompanied by a parallel rise in the enzyme content which may be detected either in the blood or urine.

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Body fluid enzymes in health and disease

The animal organism cannot manufacture minerals and most of the vitamins, generally speaking, but it can manufacture enzymes out of his own cells. The greater the demand made upon these cells for enzymes, the sooner will their power to produce them be excessively taxed or destroyed. When a certain quantity of enzymes is contributed daily by the food, the demand on the body tissues is less intense and consequently the menace of exhaustion is less formidable.

The Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago, Department of Gastrointestinal Research investigators claim that old people have a deficiency of starch digestion in the mouth and stomach. Young people can easily digest 50 grams of white bread in the mouth and stomach, while only 1 percent of it will be digested in the mouth and stomach of old people.

Many acute diseases are associated with high enzyme content of body fluids while many chronic diseases display a low content.

Subordinate role of enzymes in health and disease

Professor Ivy, summarizing important work done at Northwestern University, said: “I suspect that a deficiency of external pancreatic secretion occurs more frequently in man than is now believed”, I am sure, however, that a detailed study of the facts presented will be ample to establish conclusively that enzyme deficiency is not to be considered fundamentally as a depletion of the pancreas or any other enzyme-secreting gland, but as a condition originating in the tissues and ultimately related to decreased consumption of food enzymes occasioned by long-continued use of heat-treated diet.

The pancreas plays only an intermediate and subordinate role and that the underlying failure and exhaustion is traceable back to the tissues of the organism.

Relation of enzyme potential to resistance and longevity

Enzymes emerge as the true yardstick of vitality. Enzymes offer the only means of calculating the vital energy of an organism.

Increasing the heart rate decreases length of life.

The increased metabolic activity with rise in temperature can be explained only on the basis of increased enzyme activity. Increased rate of enzyme depletion begets a shorter life span.

It has been found by Dr. Edward Howell that 47.7 degrees C to be a critical temperature. The human skin can withstand a temperature of 47.2 C for many hours; 47,7 degrees C gradually produces uncomfortable stimuli, while 48,3 degrees C causes a superficial burn. It has also been found that seeds will not germinate if the enzyme content has become diminished beyond a certain point.

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Effects of raw or pasteurized milk

However valuable vitamins may be in specific instances, the attempt to balance synthetic diets with vitamins and minerals but without enzymes has already ended in failure. Increased use of vitamins has not retarded the incidence of, or rising death rates from several serious diseases, nor is there any evidence that purified vitamin preparations can produce other than temporary effects except in a few specific conditions.

The prevalent idea that raw food has no virtue except that it supplies vitamins and minerals is a serious menace to human health. Canners are exploiting this notion for commercial reasons. It is pointed out that easily made up by use of vitamin preparations. It has been claimed that the survival of human race on a diet consisting of an abundant amount of cooked food offers a satisfactory rebuttal to the doctrine that raw food is necessary to maintain a satisfactory level of health. But the human being cannot be accepted as symbolic of a healthy organism. The average human life span does not measure up to biological standards. Superficial evidence of early degenerative changes in human beings is clearly discernible by anyone. The prevalence of carries, nasopharyngeal abnormalities, and postural defects among children; excessive hair loss, eye defects, and skin lesions in young adults; and various functional or serious organic diseases in later life; disqualifies man as a prototype of reasonably good health. Incessantly mounting death rates in most degenerative diseases speak against the theory that the prevalent use of large quantities of heat-prepared food by man is normal or optimal.

Thermo-labile supplementary factors in meat

If any doubt exists as to the utter lack of defense of enzymes against destruction by mild heat, Dr. Edward Howell can supply proof, based on his own experiments, as well as those of more than 50 technical men and physicians, that enzymes, if heated in water, are destroyed more or less completely in the temperature range from 48 degrees C to 65 degrees C. Long heating at 48 degrees C or short heating at 65 degrees C kills enzymes. Heating at 60 to 80 for half an hour completely kills any enzyme.

Diet and health of primitive and modernized Eskimos

It must be brought out that most savage and primitive races, with the exception of the isolated Eskimo, utilize cookery. The primitive, isolated polar Eskimo is perhaps the only primitive type not having the medicine man as an official member of the tribe with a full complement of remedies. It is true, they have their witch doctors, but these act mostly in the capacity of spiritual leaders, although it is said they have been known to do crude but skillful surgery in instances of injury. However, it appears that the primitive Eskimo has had neither the urge nor the necessity to develop the art of preparing and using substances as medicines.

Everyone acquainted with the application of therapeutic diets has had occasion to witness the beneficial effects often following use of the raw diet in one form or another.

Dr. Thomas, physician for the Macmillan Arctic Expedition, found that the Greenland Eskimo, on a carnivorous diet, ate his food usually and preferably raw and exhibited no increased tendency to vascular or renal disease, scurvy, or rickets, while the Labrador Eskimo, whose meat was cooked and whose diet included many prepared, dried, and canned articles, is very much subject to scurvy and rickets.

Weston Price visited the Alaskan Eskimo to determine the incidence of caries and found the number of teeth involved in caries for each 1000 teeth examined was 0.9 for the primitive Eskimo and 130 for the modernized Eskimo.

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Therapeutic value of raw food diets

The therapeutic value of raw diets is clearly recognized by many physicians. Generally, the principle is utilized by increasing the consumption of fruits and vegetables which are palatable in the natural, raw state, and decreasing the amount of heat-treated, high calorie foods. Dr. Edward Howell found, however, that the same results are attainable in many instances without decreasing the calorie value of the diet by replacing the heat-treated, high-calorie foods with palatable raw foods of substantially equal calorie value.

It might be emphasized that destruction of enzymes by heat requires that they be subjected to the influence of moist heat. For instance, it has been shown that heating powdered pancreatin or malt amylase to 100 degrees C does not result in material damage. Dry heat is not destructive except when the temperature is raised to 150 degrees C.

It is just as much an error to measure the value of food by its vitamin content, as it was 30 years ago to judge the useful qualities of food solely by the amounts of protein, carbohydrate, and fat contained in it.

The old experiments performed in vitro to test the ability of enzymes to survive acid treatment, are no longer considered applicable to physiological conditions within the organism.

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In short

Enzymes, like vitamins are normal constituents of all vegetable and animal tissue in the raw natural state. Hence it is obvious that all wild animals ingest enzymes with their food. The same was true of an early type of man before the age of fire and cookery. Consequently, in any question concerning the status of food enzymes in nutrition, the burden of proof rests on those choosing the position that food enzymes are superfluous. This untenable position postulates the inconsistency that food enzymes have left no imprint upon intricate physiological processes during countless eons of time in which the organism was bequeathed a full complement of food enzymes at every meal.

Gut impermeability to enzymes in vitro has little resemblance to the mechanism of absorption of enzymes in the living intestine.

Since foods of high caloric values contain far more enzymes in the raw state than low calorie foods, it is not possible to compensate for the enzymes lost in a heat-treated meal of meat and potato, for instance, by an addition of raw vegetables such as salad. This point requires special emphasis, because fruits and leafy vegetables are commonly utilized to balance the diet for vitamins and minerals.

While the enzyme value of a single meal of raw food is small, the sum total of enzymes in a raw food diet eaten during the course of a lifetime far exceeds not only the enzyme value of secreted digestive juices but also the enzyme value of the whole organism. It follows, that if exogenous enzymes are permitted to participate in the labors of digestion and metabolism less endogenous enzymes will be required. Enzyme activity exacts a toll on the organism entailing daily loss of a certain amount of “spent” enzymes in the urine, feces and sweat. If no enzyme replacements are taken in from the outside, the normal daily excretion of enzymes results in an earlier depletion of the enzyme potential of the body and consequently to earlier onset of senility and death.

The usual method of testing the vitamin value of food by animal feeding is insufficient to indicate the complete adequacy of a diet since the observations occupy only the early growing period of life cycle, equivalent to the period of early maturity in human beings. The technique of vitamins essaying is faulty in so far as it fails to suggest the requirements for an optimum diet promoting long life and freedom from disease during the full period of the life span. The fact that a rat may display apparent good health during the virile growing period upon a supposedly adequate diet judged by vitamin standards is no proof that the same diet will be sufficient to maintain good health to an advanced age or even to middle life. On the contrary, feeding experiments extending throughout the life span of an animal have shown that experimental animals develop many degenerative diseases in the later period of life cycle when fed a diet supplemented only by vitamins.

The fact that the pancreas of herbivorous animals, subsisting exclusively upon raw plant substances, is relatively very small (relatively less than half as large as the human) offers convincing testimony of the important part played by food enzymes in digestion. Not only is the pancreas small in herbivora, but in cattle and sheep the salivary glands are also inactive, furnishing no enzymes to assist in carbohydrate digestion whatsoever. And this is in spite of the fact that the food of these herbivora is largely of a carbohydrate nature which would seem to indicate need for a large pancreas and highly active salivary glands. How is it possible to reconcile these various facts unless it is granted that the enzymes consumed with the food take over a large part of the digestion in herbivora?

Another link in the chain of evidence tracing effects to their causes is supplied by the illuminating behavior of the human and animal pancreas in response to extra work imposed by heat-treated, enzyme-deficient diet. The available evidence indicates that Orientals on a high carbohydrate cooked diet, essentially rice, display a pancreas approximately 50% heavier than that of Americans. The salivary glands of Orientals are also larger. Organ weight studies on experimental animals show that when a group of rats (rats have active salivary glands) is placed upon a heat-treated, high carbohydrate diet and sacrificed after a period of feeding, the average weight of the pancreas and salivary glands shows a marked increase over a similar control group of animals on a mixed diet. This indicates that the pancreas and salivary glands are forced to undergo considerable hypertrophy to furnish the additional enzymes required, thus confirming experimentally in animals what has been observed in human beings. It is a singular circumstance that whereas cattle and sheep, ingesting a full quota of food enzymes, consummate the digestion of a comparatively high carbohydrate raw diet with only a small pancreas and without help from the salivary glands, human beings on a heat-treated mixed diet, lacking food enzymes, require a large pancreas and active salivary glands to digest a smaller amount of carbohydrate. And furthermore, a high carbohydrate, heat-treated diet engenders still greater enlargement of the pancreas and salivary glands in human and animals.

It is interesting to note, that one of the main characteristics of enzymes is their accelerated activity with rising temperature, i. e. enzymes work faster at a fever temperature of 40 degrees C than at normal body temperature. There is much evidence to indicate that the increased response of enzymes to elevation in temperature functions as the main mechanism of defense of the body against invading agents. For, whereas bacterial activity decreases with increase in fever, enzyme activity increases with increase in fever. In this connection, it may be recalled that the white blood cell which protects against infection is endowed with a greater diversity of enzymes than any other cell. It is not unlikely that, mainly by virtue of its enzyme content, the white blood cell is enabled to display the digestive action against bacteria characteristic of phagocytosis.

Enzymes, being capable of exact measurement, emerge as the true yardstick of vitality.

The life span of water fleas and fruit flies, kept at various temperatures, varied with temperature. In a cold environment, not conducive to rapid exhaustion of enzymes and promoting sluggish physical activity, life lasted 108 days in water fleas, while at a temperature 20 degrees higher, where enzymes are used faster and where insects are very active, duration of life was only 26 days. At the warmer temperature, the life span was decreased about 400 per cent, but the heart beat was increased about 400 percent. The total number of heart beats (some 15 million) in the life of a water flea is about the same regardless of length of life, showing that the organism has a fixed sum total of vitality or enzyme potential to spend.

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Enzymes are normal constituents of all cellular matter.

All wild animals live exclusively on raw food including a full quota of enzymes. So did an early type of man.

Endogenous enzymes are secreted in response to specific stimuli by starch, protein, fat, etc.

Jungle animals are free from degenerative disease. The formerly high mortality and morbidity in zoo animals has taken a steep downward turn with the advent of the raw food diet.

Article prepared by naturopath Artūras Bartašius

Without enzymes life would not exist part III

2020-04-20Heal With Lifestyle

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III part

Enzymes operate on both chemical and biological levels, and science cannot measure or synthesize their biological or life energy.

Without the life energy of enzymes we would be nothing more than a pile of lifeless chemical substances – vitamins, minerals, water, and proteins. In both maintaining health and in healing, enzymes and only enzymes do the actual work. They are what we call in metabolism, the body’s labor force.

ENZYME NUTRITION points out that each one of us is given a limited supply of bodily enzyme energy at birth. This supply, like the energy supply in your new battery, has to last a lifetime. The faster you use up your supply, the shorter your life.

Many, if not all, degenerative diseases that humans suffer and die from are caused by the excessive use of enzyme-deficient cooked and processed foods.

The body calls for exactly the quantity and type of enzymes needed according to the character of each meal eaten. This replaces the false theory of parallel secretion of enzymes which claimed that the organism’s three main enzymes, protease, lipase, and amylase, are all secreted in equal amounts regardless of the type of food eaten, raw or cooked.

Introduction to enzyme nutrition

Emotions are capable of being expressed even in starving persons where there is no food in the body to supply caloric energy.

Enzymes represent the life element which is biologically recognized and can be measured in terms of enzyme activity. Our easiest measurement is a lack, for various chemical reactions fail to occur without enzymes: a radiated or cooked potato will fail to sprout. Thought of for years as catalysts, enzymes are much more than these inert substances. Catalysts work by chemical action only, while enzymes function by both biological and chemical action.

Enzymes contain proteins and some contain vitamins which can and have been synthesized by chemists. However, the “life principle” or “activity factor” of the enzyme has never been synthesized. The proteins in enzymes serve merely as carriers of enzyme activity factors. We can summarize that enzymes are protein carriers charged with vital energy factors, just as your battery consists of metal plates charged with electrical energy.

Digestive enzymes have only three main jobs: digesting protein, carbohydrate, and fat.

Although the body makes less than two dozen digestive enzymes, it uses up more of its enzyme potential supplying these than it uses to make hundreds of metabolic enzymes needed to keep all of the organs and tissues functioning with their diversified activities. The digestive enzymes of “civilized humans” are infinitely stronger and more concentrated in enzyme activity than any of the metabolic enzymes – more concentrated than any other enzyme combination found in nature. Human saliva and pancreatic juice are loaded with enzyme activity. There is no evidence that wild animals, living on natural raw diets, have digestive enzyme juices even remotely approaching the strength of those found in “civilized human beings”.

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The Law of Adaptive Secretion of Digestive Enzymes

If the human organism must devote a huge portion of its enzyme potential to making digestive enzymes, it spells trouble for the whole body because there is a strain on production of metabolic enzymes and there may not be enough enzyme potential to go around. There is competition between the two classes of enzymes.

The amount of digestive enzymes secreted by the pancreas in response to carbohydrate, protein, and fat was measured and it was found that the strength of each enzyme varied with the amount of each of these food materials it was called upon to digest. Prior to this it was assumed that enzymes were secreted in equal proportions, according to the rule laid down by Professor Babkin. The Law of Adaptive Secretion of Digestive Enzymes holds that the organism values its enzymes highly and will make no more than are needed for the job. If some of the food is digested by enzymes in the food, the body will make less concentrated digestive enzymes. The Law of Adaptive Secretion of Digestive Enzymes has since been confirmed by dozens of university laboratories throughout the world.

Rightful distribution of enzyme energy will not only act to maintain health and prevent disease, but is expected to help cure established disease. The old saying that nature will cure really refers to metabolic enzymes activity, because there is no other mechanism in the body to cure anything.

To get enzymes from food, one must eat raw food.

If water is hot enough to feel uncomfortable to the hand, it will injure enzymes in food.

If we depend solely upon the enzymes we inherit, they will be used up just like inherited money that is not supplemented by a steady income.

Eating the seeds and their inhibitors causes a great outpouring and wastage of pancreatic digestive enzymes, enlargement of the pancreas, decrease in the supply of metabolic enzymes, stunted growth, and impaired health.

Laboratory mice, eating the standard laboratory chow diet of heat-processed, enzyme-free food, have a pancreas two to three times heavier than that of wild mice eating the enzyme diet of raw food they find in nature.

When dogs and cats eat their natural raw, carnivorous diet, there are no enzymes in saliva. But when dogs are fed on a high carbohydrate, heat-treated diet, enzyme show up in the saliva within a week, obeying the Law of Adaptive Secretions of Digestive Enzymes.

Food enzyme digestion in humans

According to the Food Enzyme Concept, there is a mechanism operating in all creatures permitting food enzymes to digest a particular fraction of the food in which they are contained. In humans, the upper portion of the stomach is in fact a food-enzyme stomach. This part secretes no enzymes. It behaves the same as other food-enzyme stomachs. When raw food with its enzymes is eaten, it goes into this peristalsis-free food-enzyme section of our stomach where these food enzymes digest the food. In fact, the digestion of protein, carbohydrate, and fat in raw food begins in the mouth at the very moment the plant cell walls are ruptured, releasing the food enzymes during the act of mastication.

Research findings

Some people believe that the low pH of the human stomach stops most of the digestive activity of salivary, and, presumably, supplemental enzymes, because the pH (measurement of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution) of human saliva is neutral (7). It can be seen, however, that salivary amylase does assist in digestion in the stomach, and that food and supplemental enzymes are even more effective.

More recent experiments conducted in vivo (in the living organism) found that salivary amylase and supplemental enzymes were recovered in the duodenum and lower in the intestine, showing that supplemental enzymes and food enzymes may be reactivated by the juices of the intestine.

The foregoing evidence clearly establishes that a large quantity of starch is regularly digested in the human stomach by salivary amylase, even though it is not the ideal enzyme to work in the stomach. Where, then, do critics get the authority to state that food enzymes and supplemental enzymes do not digest food in the stomach? Reading such statements in textbooks is misleading. They may merely be the opinions of the authors, unless they are shown to be based on actual research work that is recorded in scientific periodical literature.

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Food enzymes add life

Disease and cookery originated simultaneously. And cookery must be held guilty of assassinating hundreds of food enzymes which, we must be constantly reminded, are the most delicate and precious elements that foods can offer us.

Has any hunter or animal observer ever seen a wild elephant, or any jungle inhabitant, hobbling along painfully on deformed arthritic joints?

Among the many thousands of species of creatures living on this earth, only humans and some of their domestic animals try to live without food enzymes.

When we try to accept the stress-reaction syndrome as a cause of disease, a contradiction crops up. If we place heavy emphasis upon stress as a primary cause of various diseases, and ignore the role played by undernutrition, it could be expected that wild animals would display a larger incidence of disease than humans, because the stress reaction in wild animals must be so taxing and consuming as to spell the difference between life and death. But we all know the reverse is true. Wild creatures of the deep jungle are free of disease.

Data suggests that because wild rats and wild mice have larger adrenal glands, which produce more adrenalin, the wild creatures should have more disease than the tame ones. But since the very reverse is true, it is obvious that the stress theory is in trouble. By weighing the factors involved, there is no alternative to the conclusion that the stress theory cannot account for the primary cause of disease. That the primary cause of most disease is undernutrition has been amply demonstrated by research, and enzyme undernutrition stands out as a prime architect of this health bankruptcy.

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Enzymes can and do wear out

Now let us deal with the allegations in encyclopedias, dictionaries, and textbooks that enzymes work by their mere presence and are not used up in doing their jobs. This is an outrageous declaration and leads to the dangerous expectation that, by some special kind of magic, the enzyme checking account cannot be overdrawn and will last forever. This false but “official” doctrine deceives even the best-intentioned doctors and other technical people. If a doctor believes this myth which leads to falsifying the behavior of enzymes, he will not recognize the early warning signs of enzyme undernutrition and bankruptcy.

There are many reports on enzymes in the scientific periodical literature of the world that have not been incorporated into the text books by professors and instructors to teach their students in our colleges and universities.

Enzymes are used up by all of the varied activities of the organism.

The scientific team MacArthur and Baille of the University of Toronto, at the conclusion of a piece of research, stated:

The organism appears to receive a specific sum total of “vitality” rather than a definite allotment of days. Life runs out its course to its natural term with a velocity directly proportional to the catabolic rate, or, as commonly expressed, according to rapidity of “wear and tear.”

Catabolic rate translates into enzyme activity, and wear and tear into enzymes loss. These definitions of life mean that each child is born with a definite amount of enzyme potential. It can be either saved or wasted; used up rapidly by living at fast tempo, or used sparingly at a slower pace.

The books used in libraries and schools of higher learning are incomplete, because they present only a chemical and not a biological conception of enzymes.

But the statement that enzymes act by their mere presence and are never used up by the work they do has been repeated for more than 75 years the world over in thousands of books. It so thoroughly stains the fabric of scientific thought that it may require a couple of lifetimes to clean out.

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Enzymes at varied temperatures

Another remarkable fact about enzymes is that they do more work at slightly warmer temperatures that they do at cooler ones.

In a room with a temperature of 37.7 degrees C, the enzymes would do at least four times as much work as at 26.6 degrees. At 48.8 degrees they could accomplish eight times as much as at 26.6 degrees. At 71.1 degrees, they could do more than sixteen times as much. But at 71.1 degrees C, the enzymes wear out in about a half-hour and can no longer do any work.

While enzymes do more work with increasing temperatures, they are used up faster.

Official chemistry will tell you that 71.1 degrees C denatures (changes the nature of) the protein in enzymes. But that does not explain why enzymes do more work in a dish, test tube or continuous industrial bath at high temperatures. Chemistry cannot explain this, but biology can. When the temperature of a living organism is raised, the enzymes within work faster than at the normal temperature. This has a special value in a feverish condition associated with an infection. The increased temperature in a fever induces faster enzyme action.

Therefore, we must conclude that a fever is often necessary, and taking aspirin or other drugs to suppress it may be the worst thing to do.

Many tests have found various enzymes in the urine, not only after fevers, but after any athletic activity of a strenuous nature.

Here again we have evidence that enzymes wear out and are discarded without denaturation of their protein.

The experimental work shows the enzymes actually perform the work, and are used up, and become worn out in a process. Furthermore, it is shown that when the enzyme potential is exhausted beyond a particular point, it triggers the end of the lifespan. The researchers calculated that about 15,000,000 heart beats occur during the course of the Daphnia’s lifespan, regardless of whether it lives 26 days with a heart rate of 7 beats per second, or 108 days at 2 beats per second.

There are a large number of reports from the scientific periodical literature describing how to increase the lifespan in Daphnia, fruit flies, rats, and other creatures by cutting down on the amount of food given. The explanation for the result is simple; less food means fewer digestive enzymes are required, which contributes to a higher enzyme potential, which keeps death away.

Nobel laureate James B. Sumner of Cornell University defined life as an orderly functioning of enzymes.

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Lives of enzymes

We can close our minds and think of nutrition, with all of the knowledge gained about vitamins and minerals, as a completed science. But the fact remains that every ingredient in food must be accounted for, including food enzymes that comprise a distinct category of food elements. Food enzymes have been influencing the digestion and metabolism of living organisms for millions of years.

The vitality factor

Enzymes are substances that make life possible. They are needed for every chemical reaction that takes place in the human body. No mineral, vitamin, or hormone can do any work without enzymes. Our bodies, all of our organs, glands, tissues, and cells, are run by metabolic enzymes. They are the manual workers that build our body from proteins, carbohydrates, and fats, just as construction workers build our homes. You may have all the raw materials with which to build, but without the workers (enzymes) you cannot even begin.

The functions of enzymes in the body

Our breathing, sleeping, eating, working, and even thinking are enzyme-dependent. The pancreas is the biggest factory devoted to turning out digestive enzymes. But it does not make enzymes any more than the United States Steel Corporation makes steel. Iron is shipped in and transformed into finished products. Similarly, the pancreas receives enzyme precursors from body cells or the bloodstream and supplies the finishing touches. The living body is under a great daily burden to produce the volume of enzymes necessary to run efficiently. Unfortunately, we are not conscious of this, or we would be extremely concerned about how enzymes are dispensed, and be less likely to waste them. Enzymes are continually being used and eliminated in the urine, feces, and sweat. The laboratory in every hospital can find them there. They are needed in digesting food, running the heart, kidneys, liver, and lungs, and even in thinking.

Life could not exist without enzymes. Enzymes convert the food we eat into chemical structures that can pass through the cell membranes of the cells lining the digestive tract and into the bloodstream. Food must be digested so that it can ultimately pass through cell membranes. Enzymes also aid in converting the prepared food into new muscle, flesh, bone, nerves, and glands. Working with the liver they help store excess food for future energy and building needs. They also assist the kidneys, lungs, liver, skin, and colon in their important eliminative tasks. Perhaps it would be easier to write about what enzymes don’t do, for they are involved in almost every aspect of life.

From time immemorial, human babies have received dozens of enzymes from their mother’s breast during the first years of their life.

Enzymes, grains, and germination

Enzymes are present in the resting seed but are prevented from being active by the presence of enzyme inhibitors. Germination neutralizes the inhibitors and releases the enzymes. Enzyme inhibitors are part of the seed machinery and serve a purpose. But these inhibitors are out of place in our bodies. They could stop our enzymes from working.

Germination greatly increases the enzyme action. At the proper time in either natural or artificial germination, the enzyme amylase turns the starch into sugar which can circulate freely in the growing plant and act as a source of energy.

Enzymes digest their own food

The banana has about 20 % starch when green. The enzyme amylase changes the banana into 20 % simple sugar when the fruit is kept in a warm temperature for a few days and becomes speckled. The ripe banana contains high-class raw calories which have not earned the evil reputation of cooked calories. When banana enzymes have done their work there is that much less work for your enzymes to do. This is pre-digestion.

The Law of Adaptive Secretion of Enzymes is also part of nature’s plan to prevent enzyme waste by over secretion.

Throughout all of the millions of years of evolutionary development, countless branches of the animal kingdom ate enzymes as an integral part of the diet.

Let the reader consider that a human baby, like an infant animal, is given raw food having a full complement of enzymes, from the breasts of its mother. If it needed cooked food for survival, it would have been provided with it. But in fact, a newborn infant has no need for cooked food. A cooking stove, which is a human invention, does not come permanently attached as a part of the anatomy of a newly born infant.

Domestication introduces another factor which must not be overlooked – nutrition. The food of laboratory animals such as rats, mice, guinea pigs, hamsters, dogs, rabbits, monkeys, and cats, is a skeletonized factory product, either canned, granulated, or particled. No raw food is used in the standard diet. It is completely free of food enzymes. But it is armed to the hilt with various vitamins and minerals. Farm animals such as sheep, cattle and horses also suffer some loss of food enzymes. Part of their diet is being increasingly supplied in the form of commercially processed food that has been heat-treated in the factory and lost its enzymes.

When rats are given a “factory” diet, body weight goes up and brain weight goes down.

An enzymeless diet must be suspected as a criminal element in any human ailment unless proven innocent by scientific research.

The pancreas and enzyme activity

The pancreas must send messages to all parts of the body looking for enzymes it can reprocess into digestive enzymes.

Changing metabolic enzymes into digestive enzymes means extra work for the pancreas. It must get bigger, just as muscle grows from exercise. This enlargement may not harm the pancreas, but when it confiscates metabolic enzymes it punishes the whole body by depriving it of the mechanics every organ and cell needs to carry on their processes and functions. As far as your health is concerned, it makes no difference whether the pancreas surreptitiously remodels metabolic enzymes into digestive enzymes, or whether it confiscates the precursors of metabolic enzymes. Either way, your brain, heart, arteries, and all organs and tissues suffer from an enzyme labor shortage.

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Enzymeless diet produces an enlarged pancreas

It is seen that the pancreas of the laboratory rat on a diet characterized by enzyme undernutrition is more than three times larger than the pancreas of a laboratory rats eating food with all of its enzymes. In other words, the pancreas of rats eating the poor diet wastes more than three times as many enzymes as the pancreas of rats on the raw diet. The inferior health of laboratory rats is not generally noticed because most of them are used for only short periods to investigate matters not requiring extended research, and then killed. But there have been some rat colonies that were allowed to live until all of the rats died at the end of their lifespans. When these rats were dissected, an astonishing array of typically human degenerative diseases were revealed.

We can summarize from the preceding data that the present enzyme-deficient diet may be responsible for the reduction in brain weight and size, unfavorable enlargement of the pancreas, wasting of the precursors of metabolic enzymes, and many degenerative trends.

Refined white sugar

Table sugar (sucrose) has been condemned by dentists, nutritionists, and physicians for scores of years. It is the greatest scourge that has ever been visited on man in the name of food. Endocrinologists agree that the endocrine system of glands and the nervous system cooperate to regulate the appetite so that the right amount of the right kind of food is taken in. Sugar spoils this fine balance. Being almost 100 % „pure“, this high-calorie dynamite bombs the pancreas and pituitary gland into gushing forth a hyper-secretion of hormones comparable in intensity to that artificially produced in laboratory animals with drugs and hormones.

Drs. Sims and Horton points out, with normal food that carries all needed nutritional factors, the glands know just when the body has had enough and will shut off the appetite just as abruptly as one would shut off a water faucet. But when sugar gets into the mouth and begins its machinations, it throws the endocrine switchboard into helter-skelter. The glands know the organism has been loaded up with a lot of calories but in spite of searching, the nutrients that normally go along with the calories cannot be found in the body. So an order to take in more food, in the expectation of getting the important vitamins, minerals, and enzymes, is issued in the form of increased appetite. Don‘t let it fool you, the increased appetite sugar induces is not a call for more sugar, but for the missing nutrient factors that your body craves. Eating added sugar in various foods and drinks every day is a way of perpetuating chronic over stimulation of the pituitary and pancreas glands.

„Sugarization“ is an inexpensive device to make many products acceptable to the palate.

A large segment of industry depends on sugar to help sell its products.

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Enzymes work for you

The Enzyme Diet is a term to define a regimen in which foods is taken uncooked in the raw, unprocessed form, in possesion of its full quota of enzymes.

Any kind of raw diet cuts down enzyme secretion and gives the enzyme machinery rest.

Enteric tablets are so named because they will not dissolve in the acid stomach, but only become active in the alkaline juices of the intestine („enteric“ means in the intestine). When the food and tablets reach the intestine, the pancreas pours its alkaline enzyme juice on them. By the time the coated tablets are dissolved and ready to work, they may not be needed. The enzymes of the pancreatic juice usually digest all the food promptly except in those few cases where the secretion is deficient.

It is only when the pancreas is on strike that enteric-coated enzymes are superior to plain enzymes and can help out. Otherwise, enzymes active in the fundus of the stomach are preffered. They do work before stomach acid becomes too strong. There is evidence that highly purified enzymes are less resistant to the action of gastric juice than food enzymes which are protected by their own food substrates.

Now it is known that food can change organs and tissues, including glands, for either better or worse.

Heat-treated enzyme-free, refined items of food caused the most drastic deviations in pituitary gland size and appearance. When animals were fed diets greatly restricted in enzymes, the damage in the pituitary was identical or similar to that found in humans subsisting on conventional food with greatly lowered food enzyme intake. This finding was confirmed by examination of animal tissues. The intimate relation of the endocrine glands and enzymes is shown when surgical removal of some of the glands leads to pronounced change in the enzyme level of the blood.

Hormones influence the activity of enzymes, and enzymes are necessary in the formation of hormones.

The kind of calories are used is just as important as how many.

Raw calories are relatively non-stimulating to glands and tend to stabilize weight. Cooked calories excite glands and tend to be fattening.

Technical men in the business of extracting the maximum profit from farm animals found it was not economical to feed hogs raw potatoes. The hogs would not get fat enough. Cooking the potatoes, however, produced the fat hogs that brought the farmer the kind of money required to make a profit. This in spite of the extra expense of labor and energy involved in cooking.

A glass of raw (freshly squeezed) fruit juice should put on less weight than a glass of ready made juice.

Some intriguing experiments were performed on normal people and diabetics by Drs. S. M. Rosenthal and E. E. Ziegler at George Washington University Hospital in 1929. The subjects ate almost two ounces of raw starch and then had blood tests for sugar. Eating cooked starch, as is well known, causes the blood sugar of diabetics to skyrocket, unless they use insulin. The diabetics in this study used no insulin and yet after raw starch ingestion, the blood sugar rose only 6 milligrams the first half hour. Then it decreased 9 milligrams after one hour, and 14 milligrams 2 and a half hours after ingestion of the raw starch. In some diabetic individuals, the dicrease in blood sugar was as much as 35 milligrams. In the normal persons there was slight increase followed by a slight decrease in blood sugar in 1 hour. This is convincing evidence that there is a difference between raw and cooked calories.

There is a difference between raw and cooked calories.

Dr. Burch has shown that if animals are overfed after birth their fat cells multiply faster than normally. Once growth and cell proliferation cease, the number of fat cells is constant throughout the remainder of life. The voracious infant eater can reach adulthood with more than 3 times as many fat cells as a normal eater. If a person with a normal number of fat cells stuffs them full of fat by hearty eating, it will show up only a plumpness. But an individual with 3 times as many fat cells, eating the same amount of food, has three times as much room to store fat. And such as individual must show 3 times as much vigilance at the dinner table to keep the army of fat cells only one-third full and remain just pleasantly plump.

The ingestion of any type of inhibitor also causes a great quantity of enzymes to be lost by excretion.

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Therapeutic fasting

Fasting has been popular among certain groups as a method of treatment for ailments since the nineteenth century. As a therapeutic measure, it commands a degree of justification. During a fast the stress on the organism for the digestion and assimilation of food and elimination of its waste is drastically reduced.

It has been estimated that 50 percent of the daily production of protein in the living organism goes for enzymes, a major share of which is for digestive enzymes. During a fast the need for digestive enzymes is eliminated.

A complete fast reduces digestive enzyme secretion to a trickle in several days. This would enable the enzyme potential to effectively remodel any area involved in deffective metabolism.

The enzymes are workers, and the hormones are foremen.

If the raw diet of Eskimos has had nothing to do with their high standards of health and immunity to disease, how can we explain the poor health and presence of numerous diseases in Eskimos living under identical conditions of climate, but who live near white communities and use a diet more or less extensively cooked.

Scientists are now measuring the value of a soil by the amount of enzymes it contains. These enzyme values have a direct relationship to the quality of our nutrition and health.

It is known that the operation of microorganisms in the soil is very important to the growth of plants.

A plant, like an animal, needs enzymes to prosper. While the enzymes present in soil bacteria help to supply this need, good soil  also contains free enzymes.

In the act of burrowing through the earth, worms engulf the soil and extract usable materials as food. After passing through the lenght of the worm, the remainder is expelled in the form of casts which contain a valuable contribution of worm enzyme excretions. Worms, like all other animals, continually take in enzymes and eliminate them in their excretions, giving the soil an endowment of free enzymes. Soil rich in worm casts makes high-grade plant food. Worms not only add enzymes to the soil but also loosen it, permitting water and air deeper acces.

Synthetic, enzymeless fertilizers were developed only about 80 years ago. For thousands of years before that, farmers had been using enzyme-rich manure. And for untold millions of years before farming began, soil had been receiving the fresh urine and feces from countless numbers of animals and birds. Vast herds comprising millions of animals roamed the land. Enormous flocks of birds blotted out the sky. And all of these creatures dropped their enzyme-laden urine and feces on the soil to fertilize it according to the plan of nature. When these millions finally died, their bodies dropped to the ground, the soil inheriting a good share of their enzymes. Any physiologist will confirm that these animal and human waste products are rich in enzymes resulting from normal wear and tear.

 For thousands of years farmers have been fertilizing their fields with manure. Manure, an enzyme fertilizer, is an excellent source of free enzymes because it is made of urine, feces, and straw. What right do we have to deny these enzymes to the soil and spread synthetic, enzymeless fertilizer – along with the fiction that it is just as good?

The enzymeless fertilizer substitutes weaken vegetables and other plant foods, building up a hidden preclinical entity, a state of „disease“ that is a prelude to disease. Poisonous sprays do not cure the lowered vitality responsible for this state – instead they kill the plant predators and thereby prevent the vegetables, and fruits from being destroyed by real disease. Every farmer knows his crops are so lowered in vitality that they would be ruined in the fields if their predators were not killed by poison. Modern crops cannot stand on their own feet without the aid of poison.

 The weak state of vegetable and animal food can be a factor in many serious human diseases.

„The survival of the fittest“ is a law that prevailed in nature for millions of years. The weakest plants and animals perished; the most vigorous and healthiest survived to continue the species. Living up to modern doctrines, we have recently developed respect for and stop maligning such predators as the lion, wolf and eagle, and now protect them as part of nature‘s scheme. But we have been taught to believe in a double standard which ordains death for plant predators. We have become conditioned to think of these visible and microscopic health officers of the soil, not as nature‘s predators, responsible for destroying weak plants and keeping up a high standard of health in the vegetable kingdom, but as pests, to be killed any way possible. Students are led to believe nature made a mistake. The law of predation was more or less allowed to apply to both the animal and vegetable kingdoms until some years ago when synthetic, artificial, enzymeless fertilizers made their appearance. All at once plants could not hold their own and began to be attacked and afflicted with numerous ailments which had been no real problem when enzyme fertilizers were employed.

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Prepared by naturopath Artūras Bartašius

Without enzymes life would not exist part IV

2020-04-20Heal With Lifestyle

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We all know that food is composed of protein, carbohydrates (including fiber), fats, vitamins, and minerals. But until recently, few of us appreciated that all living things also contain enzymes.

It is the enzymes that are responsible for the vast majority of all the biochemical reactions that bring our foods to ripeness. These enzymes will also digest the food in which they are contained when conditions are right for that to happen. For example, an apple falls from the tree, and a few days later brown spot is seen on the apple where it landed on the ground. We refer to that spot as being „spoiled“, but it has only been digested. When the apple landed, it broke the cell walls, and the enzymes contained in those cells were liberated to begin digesting the apple. Those same enzymes will begin digesting the apple when you chew it.

Enzymes have the energy to perform the biochemical and physiological reactions that occur in all living things. The other components of our food supply, namely protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, and minerals, are only building blocks. They do not perform work.

Very few people know about the vital role nature planned for food enzymes to play in the digestion of our food or that those enzymes must be removed from our diets to prolong food‘s shelf life.

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Hypertrophy occurs when an organ is required to produce all of the enzymes needed to digest the diet instead of being able to benefit from the digestive work performed by the enzymes found in the raw food to assist it.

Nourishments of cells is essential for the nourishment of tissues; in turn, nourishment of tissues is basic to the nourishment of organs and ultimately of the whole body. Failure to form an essential enzyme or other cellular components results in the malfunction or death of a cell. This process eventually results in a specific physical symptom of ill health.

A trip to the library in 1985 one could found there were about 2000 articles on naturally occuring food enzymes, and all but a few were concerned with how to destroy them.

Did you know there are no new body processes at work in disease that were not there in health? In disease, there are only normal functions that are going too fast or too slow, or are otherwise inappropriate – out of time with need.

Every symptom crisis is produced by either mechanical, chemical, or emotional stress that either is too strong or continues too long for the body to be able to adequately to compensate. Any stimulus that threatens homeostasis has disease-producing potential. Therefore, any treatment designed to suppress unpleasant symptoms diminishes the body‘s ability to protect itself.

Cell specialization

The development of all vertebrates begins with the fertilization of the ovum by the sperm to produce a single cell. This cell divides to form two cells, each of which divides in turn, resulting in four cells, and so on. This process is called mitosis.

If cell multiplication were the only event occurring, the end result would be a formless mass of identical cells. Instead, these cells soon begin to differentiate and become specialized in their functions. Microscopic studies have identified about two hundred distinct kind of cells. However, all human cells can be clasified into four broad categories based on the functions they perform:

  1. Muscle cells produce movement.
  2. Nerve cells initiate and conduct impulses.
  3. Epithelial cells absorb and secrete organic molecules and ions.
  4. Connective tissue cells form and secrete various types of extracellular connecting and supporting elements.

Differentiated cells with similar properties aggregate together to form tissues. These specialized cells arrange themselves in various proportions and patterns and combine with other tissue types to form organs. Within the organs, the four types of tissue are arranged in sheets, bundles, tubes, layers, and strips, with each subunit serving an important role in the function of the organ.

Finally, the organs can be classified into ten organ systems:

  1. Circulatory;
  2. Digestive;
  3. Endocrine;
  4. Immune;
  5. Integumentar (skin);
  6. Musculoskeletal;
  7. Nervous;
  8. Reproductive;
  9. Respiratory;
  10. Urinary.

With each system performing the same tasks that an individual cell performs for itself to maintain life.

Enzymes are large protein molecules found in all living things. They are composed of two parts.The protein portion, or apoenzyme, is a long chain containing hundreds of amino acids in specific sequential arrangement. The other part, the prosthetic group or coenzyme, is usually a mineral or a vitamin, or it may contain a vitamin, or it may be a molecule that has been manufactured from a vitamin. Vitamin and mineral supplementation is wasted unless there is an adequate supply of the appropriate enzyme to utilize them.

Enzymes are not currently considered essential because, unlike most vitamins and minerals, they can be produced by the body.

Enzymes must be removed from our food supply in order for food products to achieve extended shelf life.

Biochemists in 1914 described the use of salicylic acid (aspirin) to destroy „the dreaded contaminant enzymes found in food.“ Salicylic acid in all its forms is distinctly antagonistic to most enzymes.

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One of the newest areas of advancement is in growing hybrid foods such as tomatoes that will have a reduced amount of naturally occuring enzymes. This will allow greater shelf life in the produce section of the grocery store. It will also place a greater strain on individuals who consume such foods to digest them.

Vitamins and minerals are called coenzymes. What does that mean? As mentioned before, vitamins, minerals, protein, carbohydrates, and fats are building blocks. Definition of energy is the capacity to do work. Protein, carbohydrates, fats, fibers, vitamins, and minerals do not have the capacity to do work any more than concrete blocks have the capacity to build a building.

Many of the vitamins that are essential to human health function as part of enzyme cofactors.

In general, the rate of a chemical reaction is approximately doubled when the temperature is increased by 10 degrees Centrigade.

The temperature at which the enzyme-catalyzed reaction goes most rapidly is called the optimum temperature for that enzyme.

The digestion of food is the process of hydrolysis, or the addition of water. The function of digestion is to reduce food particles from their combined form, in long-chained molecules, to their smaller basic components. This is necessary so they may pass the gut wall.

Simply stated, the secret is that each raw, uncooked fruit, vegetable, or meat contains enzymes that will digest the food in which they are contained.

All enzymes require the presence of water, the proper temperature, and correct pH range in order to work, and those conditions are present in the mouth saliva.

It is nor true that hydrochloric acid digests food. Remember, hydrochloric acid only provides that acid environment to begin the body‘s digestive process.

Digestion begins in the mouth

Chewing breaks large food particles into smaller particles. The importance of this step in the digestive process is often overlooked. Not only is it needed so that food can be swallowed without choking, it is also necessary to expose as much surface area as possible on the particles so enzymes can begin digestion.

The salivary glands secrete mucus into the mouth, which moistens and lubricates the food particles priot to swallowing. Saliva also contains enzymes.

Amylase is secreted from the parotid glands and breaks down carbohydrates into smaller molecules.

Protease is secreted from submandibular glands and begins protein digestion.

Lipase is secreted from the sublingual (under the tongue) glands to initiate fat digestion.

What is often forgotten is that enzymes contained in the food being eaten (if any are present) also begin working. One of these, cellulase, is not made by the human body. It digests any soluble fiber present. This is of critical importance because those vegetables that contain cellulase are covered with a thin coating of cellulose. If that cellulose is not removed by cooking, then it must be chewed off because human enzymes cannot penetrate that protective layer.

A third function of saliva is to dissolve some of the molecules in the food to activate the chemical receptors in the mouth, giving rise to the sensation of taste.

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The acidity of the stomach

The chief cells in the middle of the portion of the stomach (fundus) secrete a protein-digesting enzyme known as pepsinogen. Pepsinogen is an inactive enzyme. It requires the presence of hydrochloric acid in order to begin digesting protein. The major role of HCL is to activate pepsinogen, which now becomes known as pepsin. It is pepsin that splits protein into small peptide fragments.

You will often hear those not familiar with digestion say that hydrochloric acid digests enzymes, because they are proteins, as soon as they move into the stomach. As you can see, hydrochloric acid does not digest food (only enzymes can do that); rather, it activates your protein-digesting enzymes.

Stomach acid is not made by the cells of the stomach as pepsinogen is. The ingredients for hydrochloric acid, namely hydrogen and chloride, are donated from blood. They pass through the parietal cells and are combined only inside the stomach. This is an important point because stomach acid could easily destroy the wall of the stomach if it were not protected by a thick layer of mucus.

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The alkalinity of the duodenum

By the time partially digested food reaches the bottom of the stomach (pylorus), it is a liquid and very acidic. This partially digested food (chyme) activates the formation of two hormones, secretin and cholecystokinin. These hormones are carried by the bloodstream to the pancreas and biliary portion of the liver.

The exocrine portion of the pancreas secretes digestive enzymes specific for each of the three classes of food components – protein, carbohydrate, and fats. These enzymes enter the small intestine through a duct leading from the pancreas to the duodenum. The importance of secretin and cholecystokinin is that they have carried information regarding the amount of undigested protein, carbohydrate, and fat that is in the chyme. In other words, the more predigestive work that was done in the stomach, the less work the pancreas is required to do.

The liver and gallbladder

Because fat is not soluble in water, the digestion of fat in the small intestine requires special process to emulsify (degrease) these molecules. This is brought about by a group of detergent molecules, knowns as bile salts, that are secreted by the liver into the bile ducts, which eventually join the pancreatic duct and empty into the duodenum.

Any food high in fat must be emulsified. There are no digestive enzymes in bile. Bile is only degreaser. If the oil is not degreased, enzymes cannot penetrate the oil to digest the food. That is what bile does. So we need bile to expose the bonds within the food that the enzymes need to break.

Between meals, secreted bile is stored in a small sac underneath the liver called the gallbladder, which concentrates the bile by absorbing salts and water. During a meal, the gallbladder contracts, causing a concentrated solution of bile to be injected into the small intestine.

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The pancreas

The hormones formed in the wall of the duodenum also signal the pancreas as to exactly how much pancreatic secretion of enzymes and bicarbonate will be needed to digest the amount of all four major food components (protein, sugars, starches and lipids) that are leaving the stomach.

  • Pancreatic protease digests the long protein chains found in meat, eggs, and cheese into smaller protein chains that can be absorbed across the gut wall into the bloodstream.
  • Pancreatic amylase digests starch and glycogen, but not cellulose, to form the simple sugars, lactose (dairy), maltose (grains), and sucrose (white sugar).
  • Pancreatic lipase digests neutral fat into glycerol (to be converted into glucose) and fatty acids.
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Lipid digestion

Mouth. Chewing is essential to expose surface areas for enzymatic action. A weak lipase is secreted from the sublingual glands.

Stomach. Salivary lipase and any supplemental plant lipase is joined by gastric lipase to hydrolyze lipids for 30 to 60 minutes until hydrochloric acid reduces the pH of the stomach below 3.0.

Duodenum. Bile emulsifies fat and further exposes bonds that can be hydrolyzed by pancreatic lipase. Any supplemental lipase present will be reactivated.

Individual fatty acids are released from their bonds with glycerol, and triglycerides, diglycerides, and individual fatty acids become available to be absorbed. Short-chain fatty acids (up to 12 carbons) are attracted to water and are absorbed directly through the intestinal wall.

The body places enzymes in its saliva. To get lipid digestion started, a weak lipase is secreted from under the tongue when food is chewed. While the food is not in the mouth long enough for digestion to occur, this enzyme, like the food enzymes, works in the pH range of the resting stomach, alongside supplemental food enzyme lipase, before stomach acid is produced. What is remarkable about sublingual and gastric lipase is the fact that they have the ability to work without the aid of emulsyfying bile salts.

But sublingual and gastric lipase only begin to digest long-chain triglycerides (fat-soluble triglycerides) into partial glycerides and free fatty acids. Nevertheless, as much as 30 percent of fat can be digested this way within 1 to 20 minutes of ingestion by sublingual lipase alone. Recall that it will take the body at least 45 minutes on average to make stomach acid.

Digestion of dietary fats is essential for fat absorption by the small intestine, since long-chain fatty acids, which include the previously mentioned essential fatty acids, cannot be taken directly ti the liver for detoxification. Instead, they must be absorbed into the lymphatic system and eventually pumped into the blood, taken through the heart, and finally to the liver.

Is your oil supplement composed of long-chain fatty acids? Probably. Again, enzymes can‘t penetrate oil.

This is the problem with oil supplements.

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Lipase activity in the stomach

Moving down into the stomach, a gastric lipase is secreted by gastric chief cells (aka peptic cells, gastric zymogenic cells) – the same cells that secrete pepsinogen to be converted into pepsin for protein digestion.

Gastric lipase works in an acid pH range of 3 to 6. Like sublingual lipase, gastric lipase does not require bile to emulsify fats, as do the lipase that will be secreted by the pancreas into the duodenum. The gastric lipase performs most of the work itself, and in newborns this enzyme provides up to 50 percent of the total breakdown of fats

As important as they are in the digestion and absorption of dietary fats, sublingual and gastric lipases have a significant limitation; they only remove one fatty acid from each triglyceride molecule. That fatty can cross the epithelial membrane lining the intestine and enter the body. But the other two fatty acids are still connected to the glycerol molecule and they cannot enter the body yet.

The pancreatic lipase breaks down each trygliceride into two fatty acids and a monoglyceride, which are then absorbed by the villi on the intestine walls. After being transferred across the intestinal membrane, the fatty acids then reform into triglycerides.

Furthermore, much of the carbohydrate ingested with each meal is converted into lipids – i. e., triglycerides – and then stored in fat cells for later use as energy.

The only way the body can store energy is as fat.

There are two types of fatt cells in the body – white cells and brown cells. Triglycerides are stored in the white fat cells. The brown cells secrete enzymes and molecules to burn up the tryglicerides in the white fat cells as energy is needed.

This is where the action of biles comes in – to break down these two remaining fatty acids in the duodenum. Nevertheless, the action of the sublingual and gastric lipases, along with food enzyme lipase, are critical because the presence of monoglycerides and dyglicerides they create work to improve the action of bile.

Protein digestion

Mouth. Chewing is essential to expose surface areas for enzymatic action. Weak proteolytic enzymes are secreted by the submandibular glands.

Stomach. Salivary enzymes and any supplemental plant enzymes hydrolyze proteins for 30 to 60 minutes until hydrochloric acid reduces the pH of the stomach to 3.0. Pepsin continues to work until the chyme is moved into the small intestine, where the pH rises above 5.0.

Duodenum. Pancreatic proteases continue digestive activity begun in the stomach to reduce long-chain polypeptides to short-chain polypeptides, tripeptides, and dipeptides. Many are absorbed into the blood in these stages.

Amino peptidases continue to reduce peptide linkages to smaller chains and even single amino acids for absorption across the gut wall and into the portal vein.

Portal vein. Amino acids are transported to the liver, the principal site of protein metabolism. Linkages too large to be utilized by the liver must be attacked by the immune system.

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The final step in digestion

The second section of the small intestine, after the duodenum, is called the jejunum. By the time food reaches this area, the proteins and fats have been exposed to all the digestive action they are going to receive. As the food moves through this area of the small intestine, actions started by the protein – and fat – digesting enzymes from the pancreas will continue their work, and the digested molecules of food will be absorbed – all but the carbohydrates.

The final stages of digestion and most absorption occur in the small intestine. The end products of digestion – amino acids, monosaccharides, and fatty acid molecules – are now able to cross the mucosal barrier and the layer of epithelial cells that line the intestinal wall and enter the blood and/or lymph.

Carbohydrate digestion

Mouth. Chewing is essential to expose surface areas for enzymatic action. Chewing releases cellulase from vegetables to remove cellulose protection and allow enzymes access to the food surfaces.

Amylase is secreted by the parotids to initiate complex carbohydrate digestion.

Stomach. Salivary enzymes and any supplemental plant enzymes continue to hydrolyze carbohydrates for 30 to 60 minutes until hydrochloric acid reduces the pH of the stomach to 3.0. Various sources claim that 40% to 85% of starches can be digested before pH reaches 3.0.

Duodenum. Pancreatin amylase completes the breakdown of carbohydrates to maltose, lactose, and sucrose. Many complex carbohydrates contain raffinose and stachyose, which the body cannot digest. This is responsible for much gas formation.

The jejunum. It is in the middle portion of the small intestine that the final step of carbohydrate digestion occurs.

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Absorption of nutrients

Other organic nutrients (such as vitamins), minerals (such as sodium and potassium), and water are absorbed in the small intestine. Monosaccharides and amino acids are absorbed across the wall of the small intestine by specific active-transport processes in the epithelial membranes, as are coenzymes (vitamins and minerals).

Fatty acids enter the epithelial cells by diffusion, and water follows passively by osmotic gradients. Most digestion and absorption has been completed by the middle portion of the small intestine.

Because most substances are absorbed in the early portion of the small intestine, only a small volume of minerals, water, and undigested material is passed on to the large intestine, which temporarily stores the undigested material (some of which is acted upon by bacteria) and concentrates it by absorbing water.

The large intestine

When we consider that over 90% of all cells associated with the human body are bacteria living in the large intestine, it is surprising that so little is known about what these microorganisms actually do.

The colonic microbiota is a dynamic population that is influenced by its host (your body), and in turn it influences you. Interactions between the microbiota and the human body have implications for nutrition, infection, metabolism, toxicity, and cancer.

At the nutritional level, the bacterial population in the colon obtains all of its nutrients from the host through either undigested dietary residues or intestinal secretions. In return, you get back some nutrients in the form of certain vitamins and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA).

When foreign material comes in contact with a cell wall, the cell membrane gradually surrounds the particle and engulfs it. It then uses its enzymes to digest the material and distributes it throughout the entire cell and uses it as a food source.

While any cell can perform this function, it remains for the white blood cells to travel through the blood and destroy larger particles of matter, such as bacteria, cell fragments, or inadequately digested foods that are free in the extracellular fluid. When one of these white blood cells comes in contact with a foreign particle under appropriate circumstances, the membrane engulfs the particle and moves it to the inside of the cell, where it is digested by enzymes. Thus, the difference between this process in a white blood cell and any other cell is primarily a matter of size.

Inflammation is not a disease, and it should not be suppressed by the use of anti-inflammatory medications.

During an inflammatory reaction the primary response to inflammation is by the immune system and its increased use of enzymes. Localized deficiencies of enzymes can prolong inflammation and delay healing.

Plant enzymes have their peak activity range between 35 and 40.5 degrees C, well within body temperature range.

This means that using enteric coated enzyme tablets between meals to protect the enzymes from hydrochloric acid is a waste of time and money. Besides, enzymes lose from 40% to 60% of their potency by being compressed into tablet form.

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White blood cells

White blood cells are usually divided into two groups: those that contain granules that can be stained for identification and those that do not contain granules. It was established in the 1960s that the granules are actually organelles (lysosomes) containing hydrolytic enzymes.

Hydrolytic enzyme reactions are ones in which chemical bonds are broken with the addition of water. Hydrolases digest food.

It is a scientific certainty that the part does not have the same chemistry, effectiveness, or reactivity as the whole. Taking one or two chemical entities from a plant and discarding the remainder as having no therapeutic value denies the basic tenets of chemistry.

Any time you extract the active ingredient from food and supplement it as an individual stand-alone unit, you create deficiencies of the synergistic elements that are in the food that the body needs to metabolize the active ingredient.

Finding a chemical in a plant and testing a concentrated dose of that chemical, and then declaring that the plant is toxic without evaluating what the other chemical entities present in the plant may do to change, minimize, enhance, or even block altogether the action of the chemical, is not nutritional science.

A whole range of potentially deadly substances had been separated from nature’s more balanced chemical partnerships and could be injected into and ingested by humans in the name of health improvement! Other chemical identities in the plants, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, and minerals, were discarded all together for not being involved in any beneficial effectiveness at all – an astonishing conclusion!

The part is not the same as the whole, and never will be, in any of the true sciences.

Stomach acid, or hydrochloric acid (HCL), doesn’t exist in the body between meals.

P. S. 66% of the body’s water is inside cells. This fluid is not maintained in a homeostatic condition. It changes based on what the extracellular fluid requires.

33% of the body’s water is outside its cells. It serves as a fluid transport system for nutrients ant wastes. This fluid is maintained in a homeostatic condition. It is the internal environment.

20% of the ECF is in the blood. The body strives to maintain the following constants in the blood:

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  • pH
  • volume (blood pressure)
  • temperature
  • Concentration of dissolved substances such as: cholesterol, glucose, iron, tryglicerides and hormone.

The environment in which each cell leaves is called the internal environment. This environment is the extracellular fluid, which surrounds the cell. 20% is found of this fluid is found in the bloodstream, and 80% in connective tissue.

It is from this fluid that the cells receive oxygen and nutrients and into which they excrete waste.

Information about all important aspects of the external and internal environments must be constantly monitored by receptors and sent to the brain. The brain then directs the nervous and hormonal systems to send instructions back to the various tissues and organ cells, directing them to increase or decrease their activities.

The body has two major control systems for maintaining homeostasis: the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine (or hormonal) system. Both of these systems receive signals and direction from the hypothalamus gland.

Food is already chelated and in a colloidal state. It is a perfect carrier for nutrients. All that is required for their utilization is adequate DIGESTION.

Article prepared by Artūras

Sources:

  1. Food enzymes the missing link to radiant health by Humbart Santillo N.D.
  2. Food enzymes for health and longevity by Dr. Edward Howell
  3. Enzyme nutrition the food enzyme concept by Dr. Edward Howell
  4. Enzymes the key to health by Howard F. Loomis Jr.
  5. The enzyme advantage by Howard F. Loomis Jr.

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